The 2nd and 10th Amendments: The Right and Power of States to Protect Life and Defend Liberty

It is extremely troubling to note the inappropriate, or just basically wrong, responses of, supposedly, knowledgeable federal and State government officers to ignorant U.S. citizens who act and speak irresponsibly as though they know nothing at all about the U.S. Constitution and its timely purpose in today's 21st Century society.

In the wake of mass murders committed by mentally deranged human beings using firearms, there are presently individuals, and groups of individuals, around the republic clamoring for the federal government to create laws, decrees, and orders that will alter and diminish the right of the sane, reasonable, and responsible citizens of the USA to keep and bear arms, meaning firearms under the 2nd Amendment of the Bill of Rights. My friend, attorney Mark Levin, was totally correct when he recently stated that "no one, it seems, wants to meaningfully discuss the U.S. Constitution today in its correct context." Yet, that's exactly what I want to do in this essay article, regarding the sacred right to keep and bear arms.

The honored Framers of the 1787 Constitutional Convention, including James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and John Adams, with Thomas Jefferson advising from France, were not devoid of wisdom when they crafted, and the State legislatures ratified, the Bill of Rights, which were the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution. A majority of that Convention refused to even discuss a constitution without assurance that a Bill of Rights would be included. Nine of the twenty-six provisions stated within the Bill of Rights were crafted from the articles of the great Magna Carta, or the Great Charter, drafted in 1215 by the Archbishop of Canterbury and signed by King John of England in June of that year, and the right to keep and bear arms was one of those articles. Of course, bows, arrows, spears, knives, and swords were the only weapons of war available at that time to the common Englishman, but as times changed, weapons, or arms, changed and improved in their lethal effectiveness. The U.S. 

Constitution was, as James Madison exclaimed in his "Federalist 44," to specifically limit the federal government in its power, and to generally empower the rights of the State governments, or the People. This principle of federalism was delineated very specifically in the 10th Amendment of the Bill of Rights, which very few of the literate citizens of the USA currently understand and comprehend. The 10th Amendment states, "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." This 10th Amendment has been called by some the exclusive 10th Amendment police power of the States, or the People, because it provides for an open-ended opportunity for the States to craft their own laws in order to properly police and protect their People in accordance with the specific prohibitions concerning their powers within the Constitution. 

In other words, the States have the power to legislate any State laws to benefit their people which are not specifically denied to them by the U.S. Constitution. For instance, a State cannot conduct foreign affairs with a foreign power, such as Mexico or Japan. This is a power specifically delegated to the federal government's Executive branch in the Constitution. Yet, States have the power to create their own money as legal tender for payment of debts, providing that that money is in the form of gold or silver coins. This is what might be called a joint power with the federal government, since Article 1, Section 8 specifically states that the federal government has the only power to "print" federal paper money for use throughout the USA as legal tender for purchases and debts. The State of Utah is one of the States that has created its own gold currency through a State legislated law.

Now, what about the 2nd Amendment in regard to the 10th Amendment police power of the States? The 2nd Amendment simply affirms that, "A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed." This constraint applies to both the federal government and the State governments; yet, if considered properly, a very interesting application proceeds from it. The federal government "cannot" diminish to any degree, or infringe upon, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, which it has illegally done by passing legislation to impose gun registration laws upon the States. Nonetheless, the States have the open-ended power to expand those laws, as does the federal government, extending greater rights to the People to keep and bear arms. For instance, the States have the right to allow their People to openly carry handguns, and to pass laws setting age restrictions for purchasing, owning, and carrying handguns; but for a State, or a federal district, to pass laws flatly denying its citizens the right to purchase, possess, and carry firearms is a blatant infringement of the 2nd Amendment. In other words, the federal government cannot denigrate, to any degree, by legislation, the right of the People to keep and bear arms. It can, however, promote the welfare of the States by promoting, or encouraging, the States to pass laws that will provide the greatest safety for the People through the purchasing, keeping, and bearing firearms.

At this juncture in this article, the practicable and utilitarian example of the State of Texas' use of their 10th Amendment police power has an important application to all of the fifty American States. The legendary Texas Rangers were a force to be reckoned-with during an early period of prevailing lawlessness on a Republic of Texas' frontier, and as a newly annexed State; and the Rangers continue to be a formidable means of effective law enforcement in the 21st Century. The old expression still applies as a basic truism in Texas, "one riot, one Texas Ranger," where the audacious, yet prudent, power and authority of a good stern person wielding a handgun for the sake of justice, law, and order is confirmed in the minds of the lawless. The States, all of the States, have an open-ended power to train and arm anyone it so chooses to protect their people. The federal government, on the other hand, has no Constitutional power, whatsoever, to place armed federal police, or military personnel, in the cities and towns of the States to enforce State or federal laws. When people from other States drive into a Texas town and see a sign in bold letters at the city-limits that says, "Beware murderers, bank robbers, thieves, and rapists... 

Our school teachers, store-owners, and most of our citizens are armed and know how to use their weapons very effectively. So, don't mess with us," it goes a long way in driving-home the reality that the people of that town are very serious about protecting their own. And they have a God-given right to do so. Any sign along a Texas highway boldly saying, "Don't Mess With Texas," goes way beyond the warning and penalties for littering. On the other hand, if you every see a sign in a city or town saying, "Beware, the FBI is on the job here," you are witnessing an expression of federal intimidation through the unconstitutional use of federal power. Federal law enforcement, the FBI, U.S. Marshalls, the Secret Service, etc. can never legally impose itself on State, county, and local law enforcement; that is, unless a federal crime has been committed, or if invited by a State to assist in an investigation.

So, when the crowds of ignorant and disingenuous people, both U.S. Citizens, legally visiting aliens, and illegal aliens, petition in front of the White House, the federal Capitol Building, and the U.S. Supreme Court for federal Executive orders, federal legislations, and U.S. Supreme Court activism to create unconstitutional laws restricting the right of the People, under the 2nd Amendment, to keep and bear arms, the reasonable and prudent People of the republic, and the news media in support of those reasonable citizens, should immediately decry such unconstitutional demonstrations and vociferously proclaim the Constitutional right of the States to police and protect their citizens under the 2nd Amendment and the 10th Amendment of the Bill of Rights. All State school systems, by State legislation of laws, should very discriminately choose responsible and caring teachers, and guards, to be trained and armed with handguns to carry, and use when necessary, while on-duty in their schools, in order to protect the lives of the students and unarmed faculty from deranged murderers who steal onto their campuses. There is no doubt that, if responsible guards and teacher(s), both men and women, had been trained, armed, and present on the campuses, in the classrooms and hallways where mass-murders have been committed in the schools around the USA, the probability would have been very high that the deranged assailants would have been quickly neutralized before they would have done any lethal harm.

There are many other reasons for caring and responsible men and women to be effectively trained to carry and use handguns, as there are many good reasons for keeping rifles and handguns in the homes of law-abiding families, many more reasons than not keeping and bearing firearms. One very important truth should always be remembered when considering the importance of keeping and bearing firearms. If the good and decent citizens of the republic are restricted by unconstitutional government action from keeping and bearing arms in defense of their families, friends, communities, and the common law, the only people who will end-up possessing handguns, rifles, and shotguns will be those sinister people with criminal intents and purposes who will use the tens of millions of black-marketed firearms available to them for murderous and illegitimate purposes. It is good to also remember that the militia, as defined by the 2nd Amendment and by James Madison in his "Federalist 46," are the men, women, and adolescents of mature age, the People of the USA, who keep and bear arms in the republic.

Now we arrive at probably the most provocative element of the awful misuse of the 10th Amendment police power by the States. This has been the copycat effect of the States following federal action in imposing, over the decades of the 20th Century, unnecessary exorbitant taxation upon the People, and then woefully misusing it. This unlawful effect is inexorably prevalent in the 21st Century and has been so since 1913, when the sordid 16th Amendment was, supposedly, legally ratified by the State legislatures. For reasons contrary to the astute wisdom of the Framers, the federal government saw pragmatic purpose in making what was totally unconstitutional in 1912 apparently constitutional in 1913, that being un-apportioned taxation in the form of a federal income tax. As the proverbial apple does not, in most cases, fall far from its parent tree, the parent example of the federal government imposing un-apportioned taxation upon the States gave most of the States an incentive over time to do the same horrible thing to its own citizens. 

By the mid-20th Century, most the States had pragmatically legislated State income taxes upon their electorates, and by 1960, the States were taxing their hardworking People 2,000 percent more than King George III had unlawfully taxed the American colonists in 1775. Of course, King George III had taxed the colonists without their representation in the British Parliament, while the State legislatures pompously claimed that they were producing necessary taxation through a process based upon the proper representation of their citizens. This totally unsubstantiated claim of representation and support of the State electorates was, and still is, without merit, and was founded totally upon a false perception of what small wealthy minorities of overtaxed State electorates have claimed is being done with the exorbitant tax revenue obtained by forced collection. As it still stands since 1913, the popular desire of the great majority of the State electorates is the abrogation of all state and federal income tax through repeal of the 16th Amendment.

As the "security" of the "blessings of liberty and natural law" was the purposed end-result of the establishment of the American Constitution, as proclaimed in its often forgotten Preamble, the 10th Amendment police power was predicated upon the protection of those liberties and freedoms by the States. Moreover, the honorable Framer James Madison wrote extensively upon the sacredness of the money, the income, earned by citizens of the American republic, and the evil of a federal government effort to tax it. He fully delineated, in the "Federalist Papers" the reason why federal and State government should always seek to limit, instead of expanding, it's taxing authority upon the People.

Yet, while the States maddeningly pursue the unmitigated taxation of their People, their misuse of that exorbitant tax money in not providing for the protection of their people is, yet, another salient issue. Most of the State, county, and municipal governments use great amounts of tax money to maintain their law enforcement agencies. The standard expression used by most governors, county commissioners, mayors, and city managers, "let the police deal with violent crime that exists," and to a reasonable degree this is wise counsel, as far as the investigation, apprehension, and arrest of criminal perpetrators are concerned, after the commission of violent crimes. Yet, the 2nd Amendment was set in place as a preventive deterrent to crime, and as a protective means for the People, or the States, in order to ensure their safety and liberty; since the State, county, and municipal police cannot, in most cases, be on the scene all of the time to prevent all crimes (murders, burglaries, rapes) from happening.

While most of the States are, by far, following the unreasonable example of the federal government of legislating totally unnecessary and improper laws, their creation of their own superfluous laws and executive agencies for their execution illustrate what those State governments are not doing; that is, fully protecting their People. Since they, and they alone, have the Constitutional 10th Amendment power and responsibility to protect and serve the People, the passage of such laws by the State legislatures is essential. Most of the States are greatly over-taxing their citizens and then using that ill-gotten revenue for socialistic purposes while neglecting the need to protect their People. Those arcane 21st Century State, and federal, politicians who still stupidly insist that the honored Framers were, either, unable or unwilling to craft a meaningful U.S. Constitution for all the ages to come are doing great disservice to the republic through their blatant propaganda, which is sad evidence of their own ignorance of relevant history.

While, for example, the federal government is to, alone, provide for the common national defense by maintenance and use of the U.S. Military, the States, each and every one of them, are to, alone, provide for the maintenance of law enforcement and social order with them, through use of their open-ended police powers. In the same way that the Framers gave the States total control over the education of their People, civil rights, agriculture, abortion, and every other matter not specifically delegated to the federal government by the Constitution, those wise men (who were assuredly counseled and advised by their sagacious wives) essentially instructed the States through the explicit letter of the U.S. 

Constitution to do "whatever" was necessary, within their power, to protect their People from criminals and their criminally destructive ways. Nonetheless, as the States continue to flippantly and carelessly tax their people and build unnecessary government bureaucracies, funding them exorbitantly, the great majority of them are grossly deficient in producing legislation to adequately protect their citizens in an age of unbounding criminal conspiracies and social and political turmoil. The criminal upending of morality and the desecration of natural law by deliberate political design brings with it heinous consequences and their pernicious effect on the American family, the education of the youth of the States, and on the ultimate mission of the States to protect and perpetuate liberty.

Therefore, in the pure interest of preserving and protecting human life and for the perpetuation of liberty, the State governments should immediately cease their obeisance to, and deferential respect for, unconstitutional federal government Legislative, Executive, and Judicial actions and properly use the power bestowed by the U.S. Constitution's 10th Amendment upon them, or the People. There is nothing more grand and godly than the preservation of human life and liberty through the proper exercise and use of law; for, as the great John Adams so vehemently stated, "We are a nation of laws, and not of men."
Can an Introvert Have an Exciting Life and Survive?

Yes, many do. Many do not.

Performers are, surprisingly often, introverts, because performing provides a perfect platform for an introvert. A performance usually involves a structured situation with behavior that is well-rehearsed; furthermore, we can usually perform without those interruptions that force us to freeze or think too quickly, that we encounter in social situations. Many of us even learned that we could pour out our feelings and enthusiasm with a feeling of safety we never found daily life.

But it's those unstructured situations we may be forced into between performances that trip us up, and leave us exhausted, embarrassed, and insecure. Many exciting careers do not involve a structured performance space. Some adventurous lives require introverts to cope with a constantly changing environment where skillful responses are required on the spur of the moment. This was such a challenge for one of my clients that he is now being treated for PTSD as he explores his introversion and its consequences. He now says of his career, "It was an exciting and adventurous life, and I wouldn't have missed it for anything in the world." But he sadly realizes that his mental and physical health suffered as a result of his career. His dawning realization that he is an introvert is helping him to reassess his considerable abilities and to recognize that he could have made choices that would have helped him cope more successfully with his career.

So the problem is really this: if you have a dream that involves adventure, and, as an introvert, you have a nervous system and mindset that says, "Slow down and be safe," you may be in what seems to be an eternal conflict situation: either you live an adventure that may also affect your health, long-term, or you sadly put aside a dream, believing you can't cope with it.

It doesn't have to be that way. You can live that life, and even educate people around you to respect your needs as an introvert.

Here are some coping techniques for introverts who want to accept the challenge.

Develop Introvert Pride:

You must have pride in your introversion and recognize the special talents you may have. Only in this way will you be authentic and honest with people around you, standing up for yourself and who you are. My client with PTSD now says that even the knowledge that he was an introvert, and that was an acceptable thing to be, would have helped him with his anxiety throughout his exciting but exhausting career.

You must learn to say NO:

One introvert client, a 45-year-old woman with a small child, had already had a stroke at that young age. She was extremely brilliant, skilled and creative; her co-workers turned to her at every opportunity to bail them out when they got stuck, and she never said "no," to the extent that she worked many hours overtime trying to get her own projects done.

Her non-assertiveness was in part due to the fact that she had been raised to believe that being an introvert was somehow not OK, and she was trying to prove that she was. She was overwhelmed and exhausted much of the time. Learning to say "no" was a high priority in our work together.

Speak up and set boundaries:

One of the consequences of developing introvert pride is that you become willing to let people see your needs, and you become willing to ask that they honor those needs.

Alyssa was part of a work team where members agreed to hold meetings online, with the documents they were scrutinizing available on Google Docs. This was in response to a statement by several members that they didn't have time to go over e-mail documents in advance of the meeting. Alyssa realized she would be in a situation where she would be asked to make spontaneous responses to ideas she was first being shown at the meeting. She asked to have the documents sent to her in advance, stating that, as an introvert, she wanted that preview to marshal her thoughts. She added that she could provide much greater value in this way.

Learn to take Mini-vacations:

George Stephanopoulos, well-known TV host and commentator, attributes his ability to live a life in the spotlight as an introvert to his habit of meditating, taking small meditative breaks during the day to regain his energy.

My client with PTSD now knows that he should always arrive 15 minutes early for any appointment or engagement, no matter how delightfully relaxed and social the occasion may be. He builds these min-vacations into his schedule, giving him time to take that refreshing, quick break.

Narrow down your choices:

The introvert's tendency to acquire and store a lot of information, from reading and just plain observing, can result in an overly-busy brain that suggests many options from which to choose. This can result in great creativity; it can also result in exhausted overwhelm.

Peak performers learn to focus and not get entranced by too many opportunities that are not in the current game plan. (This is another chance to say "no": this time, to your own brain.)

Every time you have another bright idea, ask yourself "Is this in the current game plan?" If the answer is "no," then you must say "no" to its intrusion.

Educate people around you as to what you need:

Instead of pretending that everything is OK, tell people you need more time to make decisions, to back off and think a situation through. Assure them you will provide far better responses under these circumstances. Point out instances where your thoughtfulness and reflecting paid off.

Pick your performance platform:

Introvert entrepreneur Barbara Feders, in love with nature, has created a business she calls Beauty of the Wild, in which she takes people to the wilderness on trips they would never contemplate by themselves. There she introduces them to the world she loves, a world in which she shines and can feel secure.

Not everyone can create a business to his or her temperament, but even in an environment which you have not structured, you can create your own platform. Prepare your ideas in advance of a team meeting, ask for five minutes to present them in a coherent fashion, use body language (the uplifted hand that is a "stop" signal) to hold down interruptions until you finish.

It's your stage: you can own it, furnish it, write the script with confidence... or you can forever be a bit player in someone else's life plan.
In Our Spiritual Life and Where Spirituality and Inspiration Are Concerned Seek to Remain Balanced

When Jonah runs away from God a storm arises. Ah, he did not expect that. Very few of us do.

Disobedience leads to distress.

God can let you go so far at times, and for some it can be wounding and upsetting, and of course, some never return, but with Jonah, God intervenes.

If you can spot these times in your life where Jesus Christ has intervened and rescued you, give thanks.

But, if you are on the brink of doing something dangerous and daft, in disobedience to God, don't do it. Break it off. Come to your senses.

In this case the storm came from God.

Jonah suffered, as did the sailors aboard this ship. Others often suffer as a consequence of God's people sinning.

Jonah falls asleep as he sails off on this Mediterranean cruise.

Are there not Christians who fall asleep to much of what is going on around them, politically, economically, morally, and spiritually?

Is this not a picture of a rebellious disobedient church, asleep in the midst of a storm?

You do not realise you have been asleep until you wake up!

The church can make decisions and do things when asleep which she would not otherwise make and do when awake.

The terrified sailors awaken Jonah to try and bring him to his senses.

They challenge him to pray and he cannot. When you are on the run from God it is difficult to pray.

The world will never become friendly with the Church by the Church trying to become friendly with the world, compromising here and there.

Jonah has been called to be part of the people called to be the light of the world, and at this particular moment his light is not very bright.

When Hannah poured out her aching heart to God in prayer God saw here and was so aware of her dire need and she gave birth to Samuel who became one of the most powerful leaders in the Old Testament. If you are unfamiliar with what actually happened read the account in the first book of Samuel in Chapter 1.

There are lessons reveals there which can enrich and bless our lives and enable us to receive answers to our prayers.

Of course, a man can also ask and pray with wrong motives, seeking selfish ambitious pleasures and one ought to be disappointed when these petitions are answered with the divine "No".

Did you know that Billy Graham's wife taught often that if God had answered all her early prayers she would have married the wrong man!

In our spiritual life and where spirituality and inspiration are concerned we have to seek to remain balanced and that is not always an easy 'exercise'.
An initial consultation over the telephone (30 minutes). This initial consultation is an opportunity for me to listen to you, learn more about your case and determine whether I can assist you in taking matters forward.

Following the initial consultation, a second consultation to meet with me personally for 1 hour at my office at a mutually beneficial time to discuss your case can be scheduled.

There are no hard and fast rules regarding legal rates and fees. Please note that I practice law at a standard hourly market rate of $300.00 excluding taxes and disbursements. However, depending on the type of case, the immediacy for action and your personal circumstances, the following means for pricing legal work may be considered.

By the hour:
As simple as it sounds and like many lawyers do, but with one qualifier: I won’t charge you for minor disbursements (like printing, fax or copies). You deserve to know up front what your bill will be, not something that will vary depending on my mileage or how many faxes I send.

By the case:
Just about every other business charges this way, so lawyers should too.  Although this is not always possible in litigation, I will offer this as much as I can.

Contingency fee:
You do not pay me anything unless I recover money for you.  This may be combined with hourly or project-based billing to suit your case and personal circumstances.

Unbundled legal services:
Pay for what you need.  You might only need me to handle an especially complicated part of the case or get you started with it.
If you decide to hire me, we can discuss what arrangement, or combination thereof, will give you the best value and suit your needs. Call me today for a free consultation.
The fact that mishaps are fairly commonplace does not detract from the pain and confusion that can result when an accident or injury happens to you or a loved one. If you decide to take steps toward protecting your legal rights after an accident or injury, you may have a number of general questions about "personal injury" cases.

What is a "Personal Injury" Case?

"Personal injury" cases are legal disputes that arise when one person suffers harm from an accident or injury, and someone else might be legally responsible for that harm. A personal injury case can become formalized through civil court proceedings that seek to find others legally at fault through a court judgment or, as is much more common, such disputes may be resolved through informal settlement before any lawsuit is filed:

Formal "Lawsuit" Unlike criminal cases, which are initiated by the government, a formal personal injury case typically starts when a private individual (the "plaintiff") files a civil "complaint" against another person, business, corporation, or government agency (the "defendant"), alleging that they acted carelessly or irresponsibly in connection with an accident or injury that caused harm. This action is known as "filing a lawsuit". Our discussion on negligence and proof is especially helpful.
Informal Settlement In reality, most disputes over fault for an accident or injury are resolved through informal early settlement, usually among those personally involved in the dispute, their insurers, and attorneys representing both sides. A settlement commonly takes the form of negotiation, followed by a written agreement in which both sides forgo any further action (such as a lawsuit), choosing instead to resolve the matter through payment of an agreeable amount of money.
(Note: the "middle ground" between a lawsuit and an informal settlement is alternative dispute resolution procedures like mediation and arbitration.)

What is a Statute of Limitations?

Plaintiffs have a limited time in which to file a lawsuit, called a "statute of limitations." Generally speaking, the period of time dictated by a statute of limitations begins when the plaintiff is injured or discovers the injury.

Statutes of limitations are established by state law and often vary by type of injury. For instance, the statute of limitations for injuries to an individual in Texas is two years, but five years for sex crimes and one year for libel or slander. It can vary from state to state. For more details, see FindLaw's State Statutes of Limitations directory and Time Limits to Bring a Case: The Statute of Limitations.

Where are the Laws that Govern Personal Injury Cases?

Unlike other areas of the law that find their rules in statutes (such as penal codes in criminal cases), the development of personal injury law has taken place mostly through court decisions, and in treatises written by legal scholars. Many states have taken steps to summarize the development of personal injury law in written statutes, but for practical purposes court decisions remain the main source of the law in any legal case arising from an accident or injury.

Free Personal Injury Claim Review 

Any potential personal injury case requires a detailed understanding of the facts, the processes, and the law. If an accident has impacted your life, you will want to consult with an experienced attorney to see if you should pursue a lawsuit. Not sure if you have a case? You can always have an attorney do a free evaluation of your case here.
Insurance is a contract, represented by a policy, in which an individual or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement against losses from an insurance company. The company pools clients' risks to make payments more affordable for the insured. Insurance policies are used to hedge against the risk of financial losses, both big and small, that may result from damage to the insured or her property, or from liability for damage or injury caused to a third party.


There are a multitude of different types of insurance policies available, and virtually any individual or business can find an insurance company willing to insure them, for a price. The most common types of personal insurance policies are auto, health, homeowners, and life. Most individuals in the United States have at least one of these types of insurance, and car insurance is required by law.

Businesses require special types of insurance policies that insure against specific types of risks faced by the particular business. For example, a fast food restaurant needs a policy that covers damage or injury that occurs as a result of cooking with a deep fryer. An auto dealer is not subject to this type of risk but does require coverage for damage or injury that could occur during test drives. There are also insurance policies available for very specific needs, such as kidnap and ransom (K&R), medical malpractice, and professional liability insurance, also known as errors and omissions insurance.
Insurance Policy Components

When choosing a policy, it is important to understand how insurance works. Three important components of insurance policies are the premium, policy limit, and deductible. A firm understanding of these concepts goes a long way in helping you choose the policy that best suits your needs.

A policy's premium is simply its price, typically expressed as a monthly cost. The premium is determined by the insurer based on your or your business' risk profile, which may include creditworthiness. For example, if you own several expensive automobiles and have a history of reckless driving, you will likely pay more for an auto policy than someone with a single mid-range sedan and a perfect driving record. However, different insurers may charge different premiums for similar policies; so, finding the price that is right for you requires some legwork.

The policy limit is the maximum amount an insurer will pay under a policy for a covered loss.  Maximums may be set per period (e.g. annual or policy term), per loss or injury, or over the life of the policy, also known as the lifetime maximum.  Typically, higher limits carry higher premiums.  For a general life insurance policy, the maximum amount the insurer will pay is referred to as the face value, which is the amount paid to a beneficiary upon the death of the insured.

The deductible is a specific amount the policy-holder must pay out-of-pocket before the insurer pays a claim.  Deductibles serve as deterrents to large volumes of small and insignificant claims.  Deductibles can apply per-policy or per-claim depending on the insurer and the type of policy.

Policies with very high deductibles are typically less expensive because the high out-of-pocket expense generally results in fewer small claims. In regards to health insurance, people who have chronic health issues or need regular medical attention should look for policies with lower deductibles. Though the annual premium is higher than a comparable policy with a higher deductible, less expensive access to medical care throughout the year may be worth the trade-off.

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A personal injury lawyer is a lawyer who provides services to people that claim to have been injured, badly treated or exposed to unnecessary danger by another person, company or organization, and want to get compensation for the injuries that they suffered as a result. Injury may be to a person's body, mental health, property, or reputation. The lawyer may have special knowledge of health, work and safety laws that relate to the injured person's claim.

This type of claim is a civil legal matter, a type of tort involving a dispute between two or more people. The lawyer will represent the client by trying to negotiate a settlement of the injury claim, through which an agreed amount of compensation is given to the injured party to resolve their claim.

 personal injury lawyer The lawyer may file a lawsuit on behalf of the injured person. If the case does not settle after a lawsuit is filed, the injury claim will be decided by a court. If the court finds that the injured person suffered a wrongful injury, the court may order the person who caused the injury to pay compensation.

Each country has its own rules and exams that you need to pass to be allowed to work as a lawyer.

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