The fact that mishaps are fairly commonplace does not detract from the pain and confusion that can result when an accident or injury happens to you or a loved one. If you decide to take steps toward protecting your legal rights after an accident or injury, you may have a number of general questions about "personal injury" cases.

What is a "Personal Injury" Case?

"Personal injury" cases are legal disputes that arise when one person suffers harm from an accident or injury, and someone else might be legally responsible for that harm. A personal injury case can become formalized through civil court proceedings that seek to find others legally at fault through a court judgment or, as is much more common, such disputes may be resolved through informal settlement before any lawsuit is filed:

Formal "Lawsuit" Unlike criminal cases, which are initiated by the government, a formal personal injury case typically starts when a private individual (the "plaintiff") files a civil "complaint" against another person, business, corporation, or government agency (the "defendant"), alleging that they acted carelessly or irresponsibly in connection with an accident or injury that caused harm. This action is known as "filing a lawsuit". Our discussion on negligence and proof is especially helpful.
Informal Settlement In reality, most disputes over fault for an accident or injury are resolved through informal early settlement, usually among those personally involved in the dispute, their insurers, and attorneys representing both sides. A settlement commonly takes the form of negotiation, followed by a written agreement in which both sides forgo any further action (such as a lawsuit), choosing instead to resolve the matter through payment of an agreeable amount of money.
(Note: the "middle ground" between a lawsuit and an informal settlement is alternative dispute resolution procedures like mediation and arbitration.)

What is a Statute of Limitations?

Plaintiffs have a limited time in which to file a lawsuit, called a "statute of limitations." Generally speaking, the period of time dictated by a statute of limitations begins when the plaintiff is injured or discovers the injury.

Statutes of limitations are established by state law and often vary by type of injury. For instance, the statute of limitations for injuries to an individual in Texas is two years, but five years for sex crimes and one year for libel or slander. It can vary from state to state. For more details, see FindLaw's State Statutes of Limitations directory and Time Limits to Bring a Case: The Statute of Limitations.

Where are the Laws that Govern Personal Injury Cases?

Unlike other areas of the law that find their rules in statutes (such as penal codes in criminal cases), the development of personal injury law has taken place mostly through court decisions, and in treatises written by legal scholars. Many states have taken steps to summarize the development of personal injury law in written statutes, but for practical purposes court decisions remain the main source of the law in any legal case arising from an accident or injury.

Free Personal Injury Claim Review 

Any potential personal injury case requires a detailed understanding of the facts, the processes, and the law. If an accident has impacted your life, you will want to consult with an experienced attorney to see if you should pursue a lawsuit. Not sure if you have a case? You can always have an attorney do a free evaluation of your case here.

http://injury.findlaw.com/accident-injury-law/personal-injury-law-the-basics.html
Insurance is a contract, represented by a policy, in which an individual or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement against losses from an insurance company. The company pools clients' risks to make payments more affordable for the insured. Insurance policies are used to hedge against the risk of financial losses, both big and small, that may result from damage to the insured or her property, or from liability for damage or injury caused to a third party.

BREAKING DOWN 'Insurance'

There are a multitude of different types of insurance policies available, and virtually any individual or business can find an insurance company willing to insure them, for a price. The most common types of personal insurance policies are auto, health, homeowners, and life. Most individuals in the United States have at least one of these types of insurance, and car insurance is required by law.

Businesses require special types of insurance policies that insure against specific types of risks faced by the particular business. For example, a fast food restaurant needs a policy that covers damage or injury that occurs as a result of cooking with a deep fryer. An auto dealer is not subject to this type of risk but does require coverage for damage or injury that could occur during test drives. There are also insurance policies available for very specific needs, such as kidnap and ransom (K&R), medical malpractice, and professional liability insurance, also known as errors and omissions insurance.
Insurance Policy Components

When choosing a policy, it is important to understand how insurance works. Three important components of insurance policies are the premium, policy limit, and deductible. A firm understanding of these concepts goes a long way in helping you choose the policy that best suits your needs.

A policy's premium is simply its price, typically expressed as a monthly cost. The premium is determined by the insurer based on your or your business' risk profile, which may include creditworthiness. For example, if you own several expensive automobiles and have a history of reckless driving, you will likely pay more for an auto policy than someone with a single mid-range sedan and a perfect driving record. However, different insurers may charge different premiums for similar policies; so, finding the price that is right for you requires some legwork.

The policy limit is the maximum amount an insurer will pay under a policy for a covered loss.  Maximums may be set per period (e.g. annual or policy term), per loss or injury, or over the life of the policy, also known as the lifetime maximum.  Typically, higher limits carry higher premiums.  For a general life insurance policy, the maximum amount the insurer will pay is referred to as the face value, which is the amount paid to a beneficiary upon the death of the insured.

The deductible is a specific amount the policy-holder must pay out-of-pocket before the insurer pays a claim.  Deductibles serve as deterrents to large volumes of small and insignificant claims.  Deductibles can apply per-policy or per-claim depending on the insurer and the type of policy.

Policies with very high deductibles are typically less expensive because the high out-of-pocket expense generally results in fewer small claims. In regards to health insurance, people who have chronic health issues or need regular medical attention should look for policies with lower deductibles. Though the annual premium is higher than a comparable policy with a higher deductible, less expensive access to medical care throughout the year may be worth the trade-off.

https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/insurance.asp

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A personal injury lawyer is a lawyer who provides services to people that claim to have been injured, badly treated or exposed to unnecessary danger by another person, company or organization, and want to get compensation for the injuries that they suffered as a result. Injury may be to a person's body, mental health, property, or reputation. The lawyer may have special knowledge of health, work and safety laws that relate to the injured person's claim.

This type of claim is a civil legal matter, a type of tort involving a dispute between two or more people. The lawyer will represent the client by trying to negotiate a settlement of the injury claim, through which an agreed amount of compensation is given to the injured party to resolve their claim.


 personal injury lawyer The lawyer may file a lawsuit on behalf of the injured person. If the case does not settle after a lawsuit is filed, the injury claim will be decided by a court. If the court finds that the injured person suffered a wrongful injury, the court may order the person who caused the injury to pay compensation.

Each country has its own rules and exams that you need to pass to be allowed to work as a lawyer.

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_injury_lawyer

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Template 3D Printed Electronics in One Go: Nano Dimension Dragonfly The “NexD1” is a multimaterial 3D printer from a German company called Next Dynamics. Their Kickstarter campaign wants to deliver more than a 3D printed circuit board. Thanks to the “DigiJet” technology, the NexD1 is able of print a wide range of materials, including resins with nano-particles or pigments. Therefore you can 3D print not only circuit boards, but also full-color prints and flexible materials.

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The NexD1 prints fully functional PCBs and places them in any 3D configuration. According to the team, this is made possible by galvanizing a nano-particle infused resin – a new and interesting way of electronics manufacturing that opens up a new realm of potential in 3D prototyping.

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. Components (e.g. capacitors, resistors or active devices) are generally soldered on the PCB. Advanced PCBs may contain components embedded in the substrate.

PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Conductors on different layers are connected with vias. Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density.

FR-4 glass epoxy is the primary insulating substrate. A basic building block of the PCB is an FR-4 panel with a thin layer of copper foil laminated to one or both sides. In multi-layer boards multiple layers of material are laminated together.

Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction. PCBs require the additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Manufacturing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods as components are mounted and wired with one single part.

A minimal PCB with a single component used for easier modeling is called a breakout board.  The making of DIY circuit boards is a complex task. First, you’ll have to plan the PCB, make a 2D print of the layout, cut a copper plate, transfer the PCB layout to the copper plate, iron the

go through the process of etching, cleaning, disposing… and after some hours of manual labor, you should be ready.
The FDA Just Approved a Game-Changing Therapy for Blindness - A decision on Spark Therapeutics' (NASDAQ: ONCE) vision-restoring gene therapy, Luxturna, was expected next month, but the Food and Drug Administration decided an early OK was warranted following a unanimous recommendation by its advisory committee in October. The approval is a big breakthrough for patients and the company, but Luxturna's price could raise some eyebrows.
A bit of backstory

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Luxturna is a gene therapy that can restore functional vision in 90% of patients with biallelic RPE65 mutation-associated retinal dystrophy. Patients with this rare condition lose their vision because they fail to produce an adequate amount of RPE65, a protein that's critical to sight. Typically, patients with this genetic mutation lose their vision over time and many of these patients eventually become completely blind. There are approximately 1,000 to 2,000 patients in the U.S. with biallelic RPE65 mutation-associated retinal dystrophy.

The FDA Just Approved a Game-Changing Therapy for Blindness
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Luxturna restores functional vision in these patients by using an inactivated and naturally occurring adeno-associated virus to deliver a normal copy of the RPE65 gene directly to retinal cells. It's both the first gene therapy to be approved for use in these patients and the only FDA-approved treatment for this indication, so doctors and patients are likely to embrace it. A pricey proposition Gene therapies are incredibly complex and Luxturna is no exception. The high cost of developing it for a small number of patients could result in its becoming one of the most expensive drugs on the planet.

As of the time of this writing, Spark Therapeutics hasn't disclosed pricing yet, but management told investors during its third-quarter earnings conference call that Luxturna could hit the market with a one-time price that's "in excess of $1 million per patient."

Management based that price on "reasonable assumptions" of the direct costs that are incurred by these patients over their lifetime. They may have a point. Because Luxturna is a one-and-done treatment, its high up-front cost may actually be a bargain over time, especially when you attach a value to the caregivers that patients often require. It shouldn't be ignored how this drug may improve patients' quality of life, either.
We'll know soon

Luxturna's approval validates Spark Therapeutics' approach to gene therapy, and it could provide meaningful revenue that the company can use to fund its other research and development programs, including research on gene therapies for hemophilia patients.

The exact amount of revenue that Luxturna generates will depend on pricing, the willingness of insurers to cover it, and how quickly treatment centers ramp up. Management expects Luxturna to be available in Q1 2018, so investors will want to keep an eye on second-quarter sales next year to see how they're shaping up. Industry analysts' sales forecasts should be taken with a grain of salt because they often miss the mark, but consensus estimates pegs Luxturna revenue at $75 million next year, before climbing into the hundreds of millions of dollars in 2019. If those estimates are anywhere near correct, then this approval is undeniably an important win for Spark Therapeutics.

When investing geniuses David and Tom Gardner have a stock tip, it can pay to listen. After all, the newsletter they have run for over a decade, Motley Fool Stock Advisor, has tripled the market.*

David and Tom just revealed what they believe are the 10 best stocks for investors to buy right now... and Spark Therapeutics wasn't one of them! That's right -- they think these 10 stocks are even better buys.

SOURCE ; http://www.nwitimes.com/business/investment/markets-and-stocks/the-fda-just-approved-a-game-changing-therapy-for-blindness/article_8e991a86-b8ce-5cda-add9-ba69b90413b2.html
This Food and Drug Administration approved Luxturna, a gene therapy developed by Spark Therapeutics, to treat an inherited form of blindness. Courtesy of Spark Therapeutics via AP The Food and Drug Administration Tuesday approved the first gene therapy to treat an inherited disease.

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The treatment is called Luxturna, a genetically modified virus that ferries a healthy gene into the eyes of patients born with retinal dystrophy, a rare condition that destroys cells in the retina needed for healthy vision. In tests on patients, the treatment often produced dramatic results, restoring the ability of patients to see things they could never see before, such as the stars, the moon, fireworks and their parents' faces. The treatment also enabled patients to do many things that had been impossible, such as read, play sports, ride bicycles and go outside at night by themselves.

"Today's approval marks another first in the field of gene therapy," said FDA Commission Scott Gottlieb in a statement announcing the decision. "This milestone reinforces the potential of this breakthrough approach in treating a wide range of challenging diseases."

FDA Panel Endorses Gene Therapy For A Form Of Childhood Blindness

The approval marks the latest development in the rapidly moving field of gene therapy, which for years was mired in disappointments and disasters.

In August, the FDA approved Kymriah, the first gene-therapy product to treat a form of leukemia. A second gene-based treatment, called Yescarta, was approved for a form of lymphoma in October.

Gene therapy is showing promise for many other conditions.

Despite the rising enthusiasm for the approach, there are still some concerns. They include the safety of some of the treatments and the cost. The first gene therapy product costs $475,000 per patient.

Spark Therapeutics, which makes Luxturna, hasn't said how much it will charge. But there is a widespread expectation that it could cost at least $1 million to treat each patient.

"I think the price tag will be enormous — 20 or 30 times the annual wages of the typical American," says Dr. Peter Bach, director of the Center for Health Policy and Outcomes at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

"For rare conditions like this, the question we need to ask ourselves is exactly how much wealth should be transferred from society to the investors in these companies," Bach says. "Without addressing that we are just letting the investors decide how much they can take."

The FDA's decision to approve Luxturna follows a unanimous recommendation in its favor by an advisory committee in October.

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/12/19/571962226/first-gene-therapy-for-inherited-disease-gets-fda-approval
Missed out on solar eclipse glasses and don't want to use a pinhole viewer to view the total solar eclipse? Just view the moon blocking out the sun via your cell phone, according to a popular social media meme making the rounds.

But is it safe?

Yes, but as with most things, there is a caveat.

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"Yes, you can," use your phone in selfie mode to watch the eclipse, Jim Todd, director of Space Science Education at Oregon Museum of Science and Industry told KOIN 6 News. "Selfie is fine. You are not looking at the sun in that fashion and you are taking a snapshot really."

That doesn't mean you should stare at your phone the entire time.

"You have to be careful that you minimize glimpsing the bright sun with your eyes without the benefit of a proper filter," NASA advised.

You will only be able to take unmagnified images of the eclipse if you're using your cell phone to see the eclipse or take a photo. That doesn't mean you shouldn't do use your phone to take an eclipse shot, NASA said.

"These photos can be very exciting because the field-of-view is large enough that you can compose the shot with your friends and local scenery in the shot, at the same time a recognizable, eclipsed sun during totality hangs dramatically in the darkened sky," NASA officials said. "You will easily be able to capture with most smartphone cameras the darkened disk of the moon surrounded by a clearly recognizable bright solar corona."

Will taking an eclipse photo damage your phone?

Using your smartphone or GoPro camera is safe for your device, even if you don't have a solar filter over the lens.

You can point your iPhone at the sun and take photos and the camera's sensor and the lens would not be damaged, Apple told USA Today. iPhone and other smartphone cameras are 28mm wide angle lenses, and the GoPro is even wider, meaning the sun will appear in the photo but only as a small dot in the background.

And while your photos may not be as dramatic as a NASA-shot super up-close shot, you'll be relieved that your smartphone won't be damaged during the event.

Want some help taking photos of the eclipse? Here are NASA's recommendations.

There are also apps designed to help you take the best possible cell phone pictures of the eclipse. You can find those here.
http://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2017/08/solar_eclipse_2017_can_you_use.html